2021 - Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences

Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) is a rare ocular malignancy that manifests as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential to prevent mistreatment and to reduce the high morbidity and mortality associated with VRL. The disease can be diagnosed using various methods, including cytology, immunohistochemistry, cytokine analysis, flow cytometry, and molecular analysis of bulk vitreous aspirates. Despite these options, VRL diagnosis remains challenging, as samples are often confounded by low cellularity, the presence of debris and non-target immunoreactive cells, and poor cytological preservation. As such, VRL diagnostic accuracy is limited by both false-positive and false-negative outcomes. Missed or inappropriate diagnosis may cause delays in treatment, which can have life-threatening consequences for patients with VRL. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and the diagnostic modalities used for VRL diagnosis. We also highlight several emerging molecular techniques, including high-resolution single cell-based analyses, which may enable more comprehensive and precise VRL diagnoses.

Keywords: cytology; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; molecular diagnostics; precision medicine; single-cell analysis; vitreoretinal lymphoma.

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Tan WJ, Wang MM, Castagnoli PR, Chan ASY, Lim TS*

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